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Hyperthyroidism can be suspected in patients with tremors, excessive sweating, smooth, velvety skin, fine hair, a rapid heart rate and an enlarged thyroid gland. There may be puffiness around the eyes and a characteristic stare due to the elevation of the upper eyelids. Advanced symptoms are easily detected, but early symptoms, especially in the elderly, may be quite inconspicuous. In all cases, a blood test is needed to confirm the diagnosis.
|The following signs "scream" hyperthyroidism:
Fast heart rate
Warm moist skin
If you experience some of the above it is a good idea to see the doctor.
The blood levels of thyroid hormones can be measured directly and usually are elevated with hyperthyroidism.
Although the blood tests mentioned previously can confirm the presence of excessive thyroid hormone, they do not point to a specific cause.
If there is obvious involvement of the eyes, a diagnosis of Graves' disease is almost certain. A combination of antibody screening (for Graves' disease) and a thyroid scan using radioactively labeled iodine (which concentrates in the thyroid gland) can help diagnose the underlying thyroid disease. These investigations are chosen on a case-by-case basis.
Common tests used to diagnose hyperthyroidism
The main tool for detection of hyperthyroidism is measurement of the blood TSH level. As mentioned earlier, TSH is secreted by the pituitary gland. If an excess amount of thyroid hormone is present, TSH is "down-regulated" and the level of TSH falls in an attempt to reduce production of thyroid hormone. Thus, the measurement of TSH should result in low or undetectable levels in cases of hyperthyroidism. However, there is one exception. If the excessive amount of thyroid hormone is due to a TSH-secreting pituitary tumor, then the levels of TSH will be abnormally high. This uncommon disease is known as "secondary hyperthyroidism."
Thyroid hormones themselves (T3, T4, T7). This is not too common, as most people with hyperthyroidism will have all of their thyroid hormone measurements high (except TSH).
Iodine thyroid scan
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